The art world is filled with renowned artists who have left an indelible mark on history through pieces they painstakingly created by hand. However, some artists managed to achieve fame and fortune with the assistance of armies of assistance and craftsmen.

This tradition is nothing new, and even some of the most famous Renaissance artists only put the finishing touches on paintings created by apprentices. However, the art titans listed below reached new levels of fame and impacted the art world, all without directly crafting the artworks themselves.

Andy Warhol

Andy Warhol, the visionary behind the Pop Art movement, had an unconventional approach to art production. He established the famous “Factory” studio, where a team of talented artists and assistants helped bring his ideas to life. Some teams were dedicated to the silkscreening for which Warhol was famous, while others worked on Warhol’s film projects.

This assembly-line arrangement served as a commentary on pop culture, but it also allowed Warhol to create a staggering body of work. One of his most renowned pieces, “Silver Car Crash (Double Disaster),” sold for a staggering $105.4 million in 2013. Warhol’s net worth at the time of his death in 1987 was estimated at $220 million.

An artwork featuring a solid silver half to the right and a collage of car accident photos to the left.
“Silver Car Crash (Double Disaster)” by Andy Warhol, 1963, Sotheby’s

Damien Hirst

British artist Damien Hirst is known for producing controversial and thought-provoking installations, as well as a series of dot paintings. Many of these paintings, featuring patterns of colored dots, were actually created by assistants.

One of his most infamous pieces, “The Physical Impossibility of Death in the Mind of Someone Living,” a preserved shark in formaldehyde, sold for approximately $12 million. Hirst’s net worth is estimated to be around $384 million, making him one of the wealthiest artists in the world.

A photograph of an art installation consisting of three transparent water tanks, each containing a piece of a shark.
“The Physical Impossibility of Death in the Mind of Someone Living” by Damien Hirst, 1991, Prudence Cuming Associates Ltd.

Jeff Koons

Jeff Koons is widely known for his kitsch aesthetic and larger-than-life sculptures, including a 45-foot-tall ballerina who towered over Rockefeller Center.

Following Andy Warhols’ model, he also employs hundreds of assistance, subcontractors, and other companies to actually fabricate his creations. In the past few years, he’s actually started to use more robots and automation in his process.

One of his most iconic pieces, “Balloon Dog (Orange),” fetched a staggering $58.4 million at an auction. Koons himself is estimated to have a net worth of over $200 million.

A photograph of an art gallery featuring a large orange sculpture in the shape of a ballon animal dog.
Koons’s “Balloon Dog (Orange),” on display at Christie’s in 2013, Don Emmert/Agence France-Presse — Getty Images

Takashi Murakami

Known as the pioneer of Superflat art, a combination of pop art and traditional Japanese styles, Takashi Murakami employs a team of artists and assistants known as the “Kaikai Kiki” studio. Together, they bring Murakami’s vibrant and playful creations to life.

While specific sales figures are not available for individual pieces, Murakami’s net worth is estimated to be around $100 million.

A photograph of Takashi Murakami, a Japanese man with his mouth open and his hands raised in the air in a playful manner. He is wearing a long blue jacket. The background features smiling flowers in various colors.
Takashi Murakami in front of his artwork, Fondation Louis Vuitton

Roy Lichtenstein

Roy Lichtenstein, a leading figure of the Pop Art movement, created iconic paintings inspired by comic book imagery. Though he personally sketched the initial designs, he relied on skilled studio assistants to execute the final artworks.

Lichtenstein’s painting “Masterpiece” fetched an impressive $165 million at an auction. At the time of his death in 1997, his net worth was estimated at $150 million.

A painting featuring comic book style characters, one is a blond woman the other is a man with dark hair. The woman has a speech bubble above her: this painting is a masterpiece.
“Masterpiece” by Roy Lichtenstein, 1962, Private collection

Ai Weiwei

Prominent contemporary artist and activist Ai Weiwei often designs artworks, then relies on skilled craftsmen and assistants to create them. For instance, his powerful installation “Sunflower Seeds” required millions of hand-painted porcelain seeds, which were created by armies of artisans. He is also famous for a photo triptych of himself destroying an ancient vase from the Han dynasty.

Some of Weiwei’s porcelain seeds have sold for approximately $560,000 and are sought after by museums around the world.

A collage with a top and bottom half, at the top featuring Ai WeiWei extending his arms towards the camera his hands full of sunflower seeds, at the bottom numerous workers are hand painting sunflower seeds.
Ai Weiwei hired workers to hand-paint porcelain seeds for his “Sunflower Seeds” installation

Yayoi Kusama

Yayoi Kusama, the visionary behind immersive and mesmerizing installations, employs a team of assistants to help realize her artistic vision. Her mirrored infinity rooms have enchanted and confused the public around the world since the 1960s. While she designs the installations, the intricate mirrors are created and hung by teams of professionals.

Many of Kusama’s installations aren’t for sale, she earns a percentage of ticket sales from the exhibitions displaying her work. Her current net worth is estimated to be around $50 million.

A woman in a red wig and a red dress with large white circles is standing inside a box. She is surrounded by large tentacles protruding from the floor.
Yayoi Kusama window display with tentacles at Louis Vuitton

Peter Paul Rubens

Celebrated master of Baroque painting Peter Paul Rubens ran a successful studio in the 17th century. Like more modern artists, he would come up with the initial concept and leave the production of the art to assistants.

To meet the high demand for his work, Rubens often painted the concept on a small panel. An assistant would then transfer the design to a large format, and painters who specialized in certain elements would fill in the details.

A painting in the baroque style featuring several men fighting a lion, tiger and leopard, with swords , spears and their bare hands.
“The Tiger, Lion and Leopard hunt”, Workshop of Peter Paul Rubens, 1640, Wikimedia Commons

Katsushika Hokusai

Katsushika Hokusai, the prolific Japanese ukiyo-e painter and printmaker, established a large workshop known as the “Hokusai School” during the Edo period. Like many of the artists on this list, Hokusai would create the initial designs, which were then mass-produced by apprentices working in his print shop.

His iconic print series, “Thirty-Six Views of Mount Fuji,” including the famous “The Great Wave off Kanagawa,” gained immense popularity and influenced artists throughout Europe. Because they were mass-produced and relatively inexpensive, these prints spread across the world and continue to inspire artists centuries later.

A Japanese style print, featuring a large blue wave coming down on boats. Mount Fuji is in the background.
“The Great Wave off Kanagawa” woodblock print by Katsushika Hokusai, 1830-32, The Met


For many people, having assistants and contractors create artworks in another artist’s name may raise questions about authorship and authenticity. Does the work really belong to the famous artist, or the apprentice who actually put the brush to the canvas? Or is the person with the vision the real artist?

However you feel about hands-off masters, these artists have undeniably left a profound impact on the art world. Their ability to have grand ideas and find talented collaborators to execute them has redefined the boundaries of artistic creation.

From the renowned works of Warhol and Hirst to the boundary-pushing installations of Murakami and Kusama, their artistic legacies continue to captivate audiences, leaving a lasting impression on the world of art. As technologies like 3D printing and AI continue to grow, artists will likely find more and more imaginative ways to create art.